The meaning of borne under section 23 of the Income Tax Act is not defined in the act itself. But we can take guidance from decisions by various high courts. Here are excerpts of courts orders in which the Hon’ble High Court tried to explain the meaning of borne.
Meaning of borne defined by court
The phrase ‘borne’ used in section 23 of the Income Tax Act came up before the Hon’ble Supreme court in CIT vs. Dalhousie properties ltd.  149 ITR 708 (SC) and it explained.
Meaning : The expression ‘borne’ may refer to either the liability which a person is liable to discharge or the actual sum paid by him in discharge of that liability. But in the present context, it should be construed as referring to the former, namely, the amount of tax which the owner is liable to discharge as stated in the proviso to section 23(1) of the act and not the latter one. The reason for taking this view flows from the scheme of the act itself.
Section 23 of Income Tax Act
Annual value how determined.
23. (1) For the purposes of section 22, the annual value of any property shall be deemed to be—
(a) the sum for which the property might reasonably be expected to let from year to year; or
(b) where the property or any part of the property is let and the actual rent received or receivable by the owner in respect thereof is in excess of the sum referred to in clause (a), the amount so received or receivable; or
(c) where the property or any part of the property is let and was vacant during the whole or any part of the previous year and owing to such vacancy the actual rent received or receivable by the owner in respect thereof is less than the sum referred to in clause (a), the amount so received or receivable :
Provided that the taxes levied by any local authority in respect of the property shall be deducted (irrespective of the previous year in which the liability to pay such taxes was incurred by the owner according to the method of accounting regularly employed by him) in determining the annual value of the property of that previous year in which such taxes are actually paid by him.
Explanation.—For the purposes of clause (b) or clause (c) of this sub-section, the amount of actual rent received or receivable by the owner shall not include, subject to such rules13 as may be made in this behalf, the amount of rent which the owner cannot realise.
(2) Where the property consists of a house or part of a house which—
(a) is in the occupation of the owner for the purposes of his own residence; or
(b) cannot actually be occupied by the owner by reason of the fact that owing to his employment, business or profession carried on at any other place, he has to reside at that other place in a building not belonging to him,
the annual value of such house or part of the house shall be taken to be nil.
(3) The provisions of sub-section (2) shall not apply if—
(a) the house or part of the house is actually let during the whole or any part of the previous year; or
(b) any other benefit therefrom is derived by the owner.
(4) Where the property referred to in sub-section (2) consists of more than two houses—
(a) the provisions of that sub-section shall apply only in respect of two of such houses, which the assessee may, at his option, specify in this behalf;
(b) the annual value of the house or houses, other than the house or houses in respect of which the assessee has exercised an option under clause (a), shall be determined under sub-section (1) as if such house or houses had been let.
(5) Where the property consisting of any building or land appurtenant thereto is held as stock-in-trade and the property or any part of the property is not let during the whole or any part of the previous year, the annual value of such property or part of the property, for the period up to two years from the end of the financial year in which the certificate of completion of construction of the property is obtained from the competent authority, shall be taken to be nil.
In this article, you can get guidance from high courts on the meaning of borne under section 23 of the Income Tax Act.
Updated up to Finance Act 2021